UKSim2021

UKSim-AMSS 23rd International Conference on Modelling & Simulation

 

Due to the uncertainty surrounding the corona virus the conference may be held entirely in virtual mode or mixed physical/virtual. All registered papers, and those awaiting registration, will go to publication exactly as planned and made accessible from this website. All PowerPoint files, including keynote speakers, will be made accessible from this website.

Cambridge University (Emmanuel College), 31 March - 2 April 2021

 

 

 

View proceedings in IEEE Xplore Digital Library: UKSim2008, UKSim2009, UKSim2010,

UKSim2011, UKSim2012, UKSim2013, UKSim2014 (also in ACM Digital Library: UKSim2014), UKSim2015, UKSim2016, UKSim2017, UKSim2018, UKSim2019-IJSSST, UKSim2020-IJSSST

Download the Call for Papers file

 

 

Important Dates

Call for Papers

Paper Submission

Registration

Venue/Rooms

Cambridge

College Accommodation

Accommodation

Travel to Cambridge

Flights & Travel

Social Events

 

 

Keynote/Tutorial Speakers

Important Dates

Submission: See above

 

Notification

Paper: from 1 Feb

Final Upload into EDAS for checking &

Registration

(Payment):

15 March

Credit Card on EDAS

 

Camera-ready

 

 

Conference Chair: Taha Osman

 

Honorary Conference/Programme Chair: Athanasios Pantelous,

University of Liverpool, UK

 

Local Arrangements/

Venue Chairs: Glenn Jenkins, Tim Bashford

 

General Chair:

David Al-Dabass

 

Publication Research Editor:

Zuwairie Ibrahim

 

Honorary General Co-Chair:

Frank Wang

 

EUROSIM Liaison Chair

Taha Osman

Papers submission deadline: 15 February 2021 (EDAS stays open for few more days for late papers)

 

Special theme this year, to be confirmed: Modelling and Simulation of Climate Change, see https://www.climateprediction.net/

 

UKSim2019: Photos, Papers Published, Program, Opening Session

 

Conference venue and accommodation: Emmanuel College, St Andrews Street, Cambridge, CB2 3AP.

 

Other accommodation in Cambridge

 

Presentations: Papers by Track, click on EDAS paper ID

 

Papers going to Publication, Pending

 

- If your paper is not showing below it means EDAS has not received the registration fee. If you intend to pay the fee soon contact the general chair on david.al-dabass@ntu.ac.uk immediately.

 

 

Papers are invited on any aspect of modelling and simulation to be presented at UKSim2021, University of Cambridge (Emmanuel College). The accommodation, renowned catering and conference facilities are an ideal blend of modern and historic. The venue offers an especially attractive opportunity for both professional discussion and socialising.

 

Full Papers (six pages with figures), and short papers (4 pages with figures) are invited on any aspect of modelling, simulation and their applications. Papers on the theme of Climate change are especially welcome.

 

Tracks/Themes

 

- Intelligent Systems

- Hybrid Intelligent Systems

- Soft Computing and Hybrid Soft Computing

- Computational Intelligence

- Systems Intelligence

- Intelligence Systems

- Control of Intelligent Systems

- Control Intelligence

- e-Science and e-Systems

- Robotics, Cybernetics, Engineering, Manufacturing and Control

- Methodologies, Tools and Operations Research

- Bio-informatics and Bio-Medical Simulation

- Discrete Event and Real Time Systems

- Image, Speech and Signal Processing

- Natural Language Processing/language technologies

- Computer Generated Art (images to be exhibited at the conference and included in the proceedings CD)

- Industry, Business and Management

- Human Factors and Social Issues

- Energy, Power Generation and Distribution

- Transport, Logistics, Harbour, Shipping and Marine Simulation

- Supply Chain Management

- Virtual Reality, Visualization and Computer Games

- Parallel and Distributed Architectures and Systems

- Internet Modelling, Semantic Web and Ontologies

- Mobile/Ad hoc wireless networks, mobicast, sensor placement, target tracking

- Performance Engineering of Computer & Communication Systems

- Circuits, Sensors and Devices

 

Suggested topics (other topics are also welcome): Simulation methodology and practice, languages, tools and techniques. Models and modelling tools. Data/object bases. Analytical and statistical tools. Simulators and simulation hardware, training simulators. Integration of simulation with concurrent engineering, integrated design and simulation systems. AI, intelligent systems, agent-based simulation, decision support systems, philosophical issues, analogies, metaphors, knowledge modelling, acquisition and synthesis of new knowledge/models, intelligent/adaptive behaviour, man/machine interaction, control systems. Parallel and distributed simulation, discrete event systems. Artificial neural networks, computational intelligence.

 

Applications: aerospace; remote sensing; electronic circuits and systems; communication and networks; business; management; finance; economics; leisure, games, war/conflict/rebellion modelling; psychology, cognitive functions, behaviour, emotion, subjectivity; humanities, literature, semantics modelling/dynamics; biology; medicine; public health; energy, power generation and distribution, manufacturing; planning; control; robotics; measurement; monitoring; energy; safety critica1 systems; transportation; structural mechanics and civil engineering, oil and gas; education and training; military.

 

Exhibitors: manufacturers of software and hardware, publishers, etc., are invited to apply to exhibit their products.

 

The registration fee is $595. This will include a copy of the proceedings, refreshments and lunches. IEEE members get 5% cash discount at the conference after presenting their paper and the opportunity to a apply to a limited number of bursaries for partial support of travel expenses to attend the conference to present the paper.

 

* * *

 

Accommodation in College: graduates from Cambridge colleges go on to become leading world scientists, prime ministers, parliamentarians and top civil servants. Share the experience of living-in by staying in college rooms. Full-board 3-day package is available for $630, and $690 en-suite, single occupancy. This includes a meal on the evening before the conference, all meals/conference dinner on day 1 and day 2 (including conference pre-dinner reception), and breakfast and lunch on day 3. For those wishing to take evening meal outside, a Bed & Breakfast 3 day package is available at $490 single occupancy, or $170 per night. Booking and pre-payment is essential, see EDAS Registration.

 

Submission Guidelines

 

You are invited to submit:
- full paper of 6 pages (Letter format) for oral presentation,

- computer generated art, submit title and abstract on EDAS as a normal paper then upload the image pdf file only as the Full paper

- proposal to organize a technical session and/or workshop.

Submissions must be original, unpublished work containing new and interesting results that demonstrate current research in all areas of modelling and simulation and their applications in science, technology, business and commerce. The conference is supported/co-sponsored by

 

- Nottingham Trent University, UK

- Cardiff Metropolitan University, Wales, UK

- University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Wales, UK.

- University of Stavanger, Norway.

- University of Kent in Canterbury, UK

- Aberystwyth University, Wales, UK.

- European Simulation Federation, EUROSIM

- European Council for Modelling and Simulation, ECMS 

 

Submission implies the willingness of at least one of the authors to register and present the paper. All papers are to be submitted electronically,- see full instructions under Paper Submission below, in PDF or Word format. All papers and artwork will be peer reviewed by at least three independent referees of the international program committee.

 

Paper Submission: the conference is using EDAS for submission, reviews and registration, authors need to:

- create an account with EDAS (if not already have one) at edas.info

- open the list of conferences managed by EDAS & find UKSim2021

- click on Submit button on the right to enter your paper title & abstract

- upload file.

 

 In case of difficulty submit paper by email directly to the general chair: david.al-dabass@ntu.ac.uk

 

Click here to submit paper to EDAS

 

Paper Templates:

Word template (MS Word .doc format)

PDF template (PDF format)

Latex template (Latex format)

 

 

Conference website: http://uksim2021.info

 

Student Members Travel Grants: a limited number of travel bursaries are available for partial support of travel expenses to attend the conference to present the paper, contact the general chair david.al-dabass@ntu.ac.uk

 

Papers must not suffer from one or more of the following problems:

1. Below average English,

2. Excessive number of citations to the authors own work in References,

3. Little interaction with simulation and computing,

4. Not within the conference scope.

**      **      **

 

IPC

Kai Juslin (SIMS)

Esko Juuso (SIMS)

Khalid Al-Begain (UKSim)

Rashid Mehmood (UKSim)

Gaius Mulley (UKSim)

Miroslav Snorek (CSSS)

Andras Javor (HSS)

Franco Maceri (ISCS)

Peter Schwartz (ASIM)

Charles Patchett (BAE, Warton)

Henri Pierreval (FRANCOSIM)

Kambiz Badie (Iran)

Yuri Merkuryev (Latvia)

Zulkarnay Zakaria

(Malaysia)

Frank Wang (UK)

 

Gaby Neumann (ASIM)

Hosam Faiq (Malaysia)

Hissam Tawfik (UK)

Azian Azamimi Abdullah (Malaysia)

Sanjay Chaudhary (India)

Arijit Bhattacharya (Ireland)

Atulya Nagar (UK)

Gregorio Romero (Spain)

Kenneth Nwizege (UK)

Kathy Garden (NZ)

M Luisa Martinez (Spain)

Giuseppe De Francesco (Ireland)

Jerry John Kponyo (Ghana)

Maurizio Naldi (Italy)

Qiang Shen (UK)

 

Suiping Zhou (Singapore)

Mikulas Alexik (CSSS)

Borut Zupancic (SLOSIM)

Igor Skrjanc (SLOSIM)

Wan Hussain Wan Ishak (Malaysia)

Nitin Nitin (India)

Ford Gaol (Indonesia)

Glenn Jenkins (UKSim)

Martin Tunnicliffe (UK)

David Murray-Smith (UKSim)

Mahdi Mahfouf (UKSim)

Emelio Jimenez Macias (SPAIN)

Danilo Pelusi (Italy)

 

Vlatko Ceric

Theodoros Kostis (Greece)

Russell Cheng (UKSim)

Miguel Angel Piera (Spain)

Antonio Guasch (Spain)

David Al-Dabass (UKSim)

Jadranka Bozikov (CROSSIM)

Felix Breitenecker (Austria, ASIM, SNE)

Majida Alasady (Tikrit)

Eduard Babulak (USA)

Siegfried Wassertheurer (Germany, ASIM)

Valentina Colla (Italy)

Marco Vannucci (Italy)

 

Wolfgang Wiechert (ASIM)

Janos Sebestyen-Janosy (Hungary, HSS)

Olaf Ruhle (ASIM)

Zuwairie Ibrahim (Malaysia)

Marius Radulescu (ROMSIM)

Leon Bobrowski (PSCS)

Mojca Indihar Stemberger (Slovenia)

Rosni Abdulla (Malaysia)

Vesna Bosilj-Vuksic (Croatia)

Roland Wertz (Germany)

Andrejs Romanovs (Latvia)

S. Wassertheurer (Germany, ASIM)

 

Norlaili Safri (Malaysia)
Helen Karatza(Greece)

Nikolaos V. Karadimas (Greece)

Afrand Agah (USA)

Piers Campbell (UAE)
Marco Remondino (Italy)

Fabian Bottinger (Germany)

K.G. Subramanian (Malaysia)

Registration (all figures in US$) Currency Converter

Due to the labour intensive process of handling bank transfers a $50 surcharge applies.

Author/Participant

Student Paper

(2 authors maximum)

Student Participant

(no paper)

Credit Card

Bank Transfer

Credit Card

Bank Transfer

Credit Card

Bank Transfer

Registration BEFORE deadline of 10 March

IEEE Members: 5% discount is given to author after presentation at conference

$595

$30

$645

$30

$545

$25

$595

$25

$300

$350

Registration AFTER deadline of 10 March

IEEE Members: 5% discount is given to author after presentation at conference

$640

$32

$690

$34

$590

$30

$640

$32

$350

$400

 

Registration: Only one method of payment is available on EDAS:

Credit Card: payment is accepted online and confirmation is instant.

 

Here is the procedure:

 

1. go to EDAS at http://edas.info and click on Register yellow tab at the top, a list of conferences will appear

2. Scroll down to conference name (e.g. UKSim2020) line and click on the extreme right green money symbol at the end of this line, a new page will appear

3. click on the extreme right button (Trolley symbol) after USD $595, a new table will immediately appear under a new line Registered, but no paid.

4. Under this table a list of credit card symbols and SWIFT. Click on the credit card symbol.  

 

5. A new page will appear, enter all card details, scroll down to the bottom and click Pay for Registration

 

6. REMEMBER: NO payment received by the set deadline means your paper will Not be in the Proceedings.

 

If you have problems meeting this deadline email david.al-dabass@ntu.ac.uk immediately.

 

Best wishes and look forward to meeting you at the conference.

Conference Chairs.

Special Theme Keynote Speaker, Day2/3, to be confirmed TBC

 

Using Citizen Science to Study Extreme Weather Around the Globe

 

Dr Sarah Sparrow

 

University of Oxford e-Research Centre

Department of Engineering Science.

Email: sarah.sparrow@oerc.ox.ac.uk

 

Abstract

Climateprediction.net (CPDN) is a citizen science project where idle time on peoples home computers is used to perform climate model simulations. This enables generation of very large ensembles of climate model data that would otherwise be too expensive to run. These large ensembles enable quantitative risk assessments to be made of the change in likelihood and potential impacts of different types of extreme weather events. This talk will give an overview of the projects we are currently involved with ranging from limiting global warming to 1.5C as set out by the Paris Agreement to the economic impact of bark beetle infestation in the Pacific North West.

Currently most CPDN simulations are performed using the weather@home model where a coarse resolution Met Office global atmospheric model drives a higher resolution regional model. Recently, two new models have been introduced into the CPDN platform. The first of these is a Met Office global atmospheric model running at a resolution similar to other state-of-the art systems (~60km in middle latitudes). This is sufficient to simulate extratropical synoptic features such as storms well and reduces the need for regional downscaling. The second new model is the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) portable research version of its integrated forecast model, OpenIFS. In the OpenIFS@home project, the enormous volunteer computing resource will be utilised to study the predictability of weather forecasts and test the sensitivity of the forecasts to physical parameter choices in the model.

In planning for future climate resilience, it is necessary to understand quantitatively the likely future change in impactful extreme weather events. To study such events large ensembles, ideally of more than one model, are needed to produce robust scientific results. This in turn presents new challenges to the scientific community on how to generate, store, access and process the associated data. The citizen science approach provides a method to address the first of these areas subject to certain operational constraints, but the community must come together to address the latter challenges effectively.

 

Brief Bio

Dr Sparrow is the programme co-ordinator for the climateprediction.net distributive computing project at the University of Oxford e-Research Centre within the department of Engineering Science and deputy director of the Energy Systems MSc course. She holds a doctorate in atmospheric physics from the University of Oxford, following which she worked in the IT industry on business management systems and as a post-doctoral research scientist looking at drivers of atmospheric variability. Whilst working at the Environmental Change Institute as a scientist for climateprediction.net, she was involved with near real-time attribution of human influences on extreme weather events using the weather@home system, and establishing how large ensembles of climate models can be used to identify new model configurations that are capable of capturing recent climate. She has also applied model enhancements (in collaboration with the Met Office) to allow different vegetative model configurations for a project looking at forest dieback in the north western United States. Leading projects on Brahmaputra flooding, Amazon Wildfires and the impacts of climate change on cultural heritage, she is experienced in the diverse way that large ensemble experiments can be applied. Recently she has been involved in enabling two new model configurations to run under the distributive computing framework; namely a high global resolution version of the Met Office Hadley Centre model HadAM4 and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) OpenIFS model. Dr Sparrow also tutors at international workshops and summer schools on extreme event attribution and global teleconnections.

 

Tutorial TBC

 

GPenSIM: A New Tool for Modelling and Performance Analysis of Large Industrial Discrete-Event Systems

 

Professor Dr Reggie Davidrajuh

 

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

University of Stavanger, Norway.

Email: reggie.davidrajuh@uis.no

 

 

Abstract

 

Modelling, simulation and performance analysis of discrete-event systems is an important activity in many branches of engineering, especially in computer science, industrial engineering, and production engineering. If the system under scrutiny is driven by discrete events (i.e. discrete-event systems), then the mathematical tools such as Petri Nets, Max-Plus algebra, Automata, and Markov chains, can be used for the development of more useful mathematical models. By running simulations of these models, we can analyse the performance of these systems, and hence propose performance improvements for these systems.

 

At the University of Stavanger, Norway, a tool known as General Purpose Petri Net Simulator (GPenSIM) was developed for modelling and simulation of large-scale real-life industrial discrete-event systems. Some major industrial problems in diverse fields were solved using this tool. For example, airport capacity evaluation for the aviation authority, locating and resolving bottlenecks in the fish supply chain, scheduling the drilling processes in the oil and gas industry, optimal scheduling of jobs in grid computing, etc. Some universities around the world are also using GPenSIM for their research on discrete-event systems.

 

In this tutorial: Firstly, an overview of the projects carried out using GPenSIM will be presented. Secondly, the design and implementation of GPenSIM will be presented. Thirdly, some of the important features of GPenSIM (e.g., the abstraction of resources, modularization, and parallel execution of modules) will be explained. These features help the modelling of large and complex discrete-event systems.

 

Biography

 

Professor Reggie Davidrajuh received a Masters Degree in Control Systems Engineering and a PhD in Industrial Engineering, both from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). He also received a DSc (habilitation degree) from the AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland. He is now a professor of Informatics at the department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, the University of Stavanger, Norway. His current research interests are discrete-event dynamic systems, modelling, simulation and performance analysis, algorithms, and graph theory. He is a senior member of IEEE and a Fellow of British Computer Society. He is also a member of the Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences (NTVA).

 

 

Keynote Speaker-1, Day-3 TBC

 
Deep Learning & Brain-Inspired AI2.0
 
Professor Frank Wang
 
Head of School of Computing, University of Kent
Canterbury, UK
Chair, IEEE Computer Society, UKRI Chapter
Email: frankwang@ieee.org
 
Abstract
 

Deep learning was inspired by the 1981 Nobel Prize work by David H. Hubel & Torsten Wiesel, who found a cascading model in the human brain. We are building an intelligent machine that works similarly to the human brain. Most of previous efforts to build brain-like machines have failed because it took about the same silicon area to emulate a CMOS synapse as that needed to emulate a neuron. In theory, any realistic implementation of a synapse should ideally be at least four orders of magnitude smaller than that required to build a neuron. The invention of the memristor opens a new way to implement synapses. A memristor is a simple 2-terminal element, which means a vast number of memristors could be integrated together with other CMOS elements, in a brain-like machine.

 

Biography


Frank Z. Wang is Professor in Future Computing and Head of School of Computing (2010-2016), University of Kent, the UK. The School of Computing was formally opened by Her Majesty the Queen. His led school achieved an outstanding result in the 2014 UK government REF (Research Excellence Framework): the research intensity was ranked 12th out of over 150 computing departments in the UK. Professor Wang's research interests include brain-like computer, memristor theory and applications, deep learning, cloud computing, big data, and green computing, etc. He has been invited to deliver keynote speeches and invited talks to report his research worldwide, for example at Princeton University, Carnegie Mellon University, CERN, Hong Kong University of Sci. & Tech., Tsinghua University (Taiwan), Jawaharlal Nehru University, Sydney University of Technology, and University of Johannesburg. In 2004, he was appointed as Chair & Professor, Director of Centre for Grid Computing at CCHPCF (Cambridge-Cranfield High Performance Computing Facility). CCHPCF is a collaborative research facility in the Universities of Cambridge and Cranfield (with an investment size of Pound-Sterling 40 million). Prof Wang and his team have won an ACM/IEEE Super Computing finalist award. Prof Wang is Chairman (UK & Republic of Ireland Chapter) of the IEEE Computer Society and Fellow of British Computer Society.

 

Keynote Speaker-2 TBC

 

To be Confirmed: The Design And Role Of Simulated Environments In Evaluating New Design Concepts

 

Professor Gareth Loudon

 

Cardiff School of Art and Design, Cardiff Metropolitan University

Email: gloudon@cardiffmet.ac.uk

 

Abstract

 

The user testing of a new design concept and prototype is an important part of the design process to help discover if and why certain aspects of a new design do not fully meet the needs and satisfaction of target users - and to help find out what needs to be changed. However, how user testing is conducted is also an important factor to consider, as context can play a part in the insights gained. Testing in a traditional laboratory environment provides control, confidentiality, and ease of conducting repeatable tests, but often does not discover all key design flaws as some flaws are only revealed when a prototype is tested in the real context of use. However, testing a new design prototype in a real context, during the design and development process, is often impossible - for example, the design of a new surgical medical device for use in an operating theatre.

To address these challenges we have developed a new laboratory, called the Perceptual Experience Laboratory (PEL), which enables the evaluation of new design concepts in a simulated environment. The aim is to have the advantages of laboratory based testing, but also to consider the importance of context. PEL uses a mixed reality approach to simulate context, combining a 200 deg panoramic visual surround screen with physical objects. In addition, it simulates context through the use of artificially generated smells, temperature control and 3D ambisonics to try and create a sense of immersion and presence. The talk will share details on design features of PEL; lessons learnt so far in terms of key design features affecting feelings of immersion and presence; and how the simulated environment has already helped in the new design and evaluation of products.

 

Biography

 

Gareth Loudon is a Professor of Creativity at the Cardiff School of Art and Design, Cardiff Metropolitan University and one of the co-founders of the Human-Centred Design research group at the university. He is also co-founder and Director of the Centre for Creativity Ltd that undertakes research, training and consultancy in key areas of creativity. Gareths research interests focus on creativity and the innovation process, combining ideas from anthropology and psychology, engineering and design. Previously he worked for Apple Research and Ericsson Research in the design and development of new software and computer embedded products. Gareth has over 30 years of experience in academic and industrial research and has taken several research ideas all the way through to commercial products for companies, including Apple. He has also helped many companies with their innovation strategies and in the development of new products and services.

Gareth has several patents to his name and over 70 publications in total. He has won many awards including Best Software Product Award at COMDEX Asia, and for his concept design work from IDSA/BusinessWeek. Gareth is a Chartered Engineer, a Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology and a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy.

 

Keynote Speaker-3, Day-3

 

Dynamic Knowledge Interpolation and its Application to Network Security

 

Professor Qiang Shen

Presentation

 

Pro Vice-Chancellor for Business and Physical Sciences

Aberystwyth University, Wales, UK.

Email: qqs@aber.ac.uk

 

Abstract

 

Application of fuzzy rule-based interpolation (FRI) has been escalating for making intelligent systems viable in solving many challenging real-world problems. However, requirements of such systems may change over time and the supporting static rule models may not be able to provide accurate interpolation results in the long run. Dynamic fuzzy rule interpolation (D-FRI) offers a potential solution to such problems. A particular application is for network security that is often one of the biggest concerns of any organization irrespective of their size and nature of business.

Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are a popular and effective security tool for generating alerts to network administrators, in order to inform against possible or existing threats. A standard IDS may be not very effective or even unsuitable for an organizational requirements over a sustained period. This talk will present an application of D-FRI for building an effective IDS. In particular, it will introduce an intelligent IDS that is built upon the most popular open source IDS, Snort via integration with D-FRI. The talk will illustrate how the integration of D-FRI with Snort provides an additional level of intelligence in predicting possible threats. This integration also facilitates dynamic modelling, in terms of a dynamic fuzzy rule base, by promoting new rules based on the current network traffic conditions, helping Snort to reduce both false positives and false negatives. The talk will also cover other applications of D-FRI in network security and thoughts for further development.

 

Biography

 

Professor Qiang Shen received a PhD in Knowledge-Based Systems and a DSc in Computational Intelligence. He holds the Established Chair of Computer Science and is a Pro Vice-Chancellor at Aberystwyth University. He is a Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales and a UK Research Excellence Framework (2008-2014 and 2014-2021) panel member (for Computer Science and Informatics). He has been a long-serving Associate Editor or Editorial Board member of many leading international journals (e.g., IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics and IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems), and has chaired and given keynotes at numerous international conferences.

Professor Shen current research interests include: computational intelligence, learning and reasoning under uncertainty, pattern recognition, data modelling and analysis, and their applications for intelligent decision support (e.g., space exploration, crime detection, consumer profiling, systems monitoring, and medical diagnosis). He has authored 2 research monographs and over 400 peer-reviewed papers, including an award-winning IEEE Outstanding Transactions paper. He has served as the first supervisor of more than 60 PDRAs/PhDs, including one UK Distinguished Dissertation Award winner. Professor Shen is a London 2012 Olympic Torch Relay torchbearer, nominated to carry the Olympic torch in celebration of the centenary of Alan Turing.

 

 

Counter 1